Old Testament believers (5)

We are looking at salvation with reference to Old Testament believers. In this fifth study we are going to look at the subject of righteousness.

Righteousness necessary for salvation

In the way of righteousness there is life; along that path is immortality. (Pro 12:28)


'Then they will go away to eternal punishment, but the righteous to eternal life.' (Mat 25:46)

If we examined no other scriptures those two, alone, should convince us that righteousness is necessary for salvation.

Righteousness is a theme that runs through the whole of the Bible. It begins in Gen 6 with Noah who, through his righteousness, saved himself and seven others from the wrath of God; and ends in Rev 19 with a description of the wedding garments of the Bride of the Lamb which, we are told, are the righteous acts of God's holy people.

Both of those examples refer to a person's own righteousness, and not to Christ's righteousness.

Three kinds of righteousness

Anyone who lives on milk, being still an infant, is not acquainted with the teaching about righteousness. (Heb 5:13)

What is righteousness? Righteousness is a practical thing. The Bible says that the one who does what is right is righteous, just as he (Jesus Christ) is righteous. It also warns us not to be led astray by believing anything else (1Jo 3:7). Righteousness is doing what is right in the sight of God.

The Bible teaches three kinds of righteousness, which it likens to clothing. The first is our own righteousness prior to conversion, which Isaiah describes as like filthy rags (Isa 64:6).

The second is our Lord's righteousness, which was symbolized by the garment he wore next to his body (Joh 19:23):

Jesus was crucified naked, symbolizing sin, which is as nakedness before God (Gen 3:6–7).

The item in question was an undergarment (the Greek word describes a close-fitting inner vest), which meant it was hidden from view. Natural man was unaware of our Lord's righteousness, and still is. It's visible only to spiritual eyes.

When they took it from him they decided not to tear it (who can remove anything from Christ's righteousness?), so they cast lots for it (Joh 19:24). One of them walked away with it, but it would have been of no use to him unless he put his faith in it.

When we are baptized we wash away our sins (Act 22:16)—we cleanse ourselves from the cause of our spiritual nakedness. We then clothe ourselves with Christ (Gal 3:27)—we put on his garment of righteousness.

The third, and final, kind of righteousness is our own righteousness after conversion. These are the righteous acts of God's holy people and form the wedding garments of the Bride (Rev 19:7–8).

The garments are given us to wear. They are given to us, by God, but we have to put them on. They are the good works (Greek: works, deeds, moral conduct) God has prepared in advance for us to do (Eph 2:10). They qualify us for the wedding banquet of the Lamb.

The wedding banquet

'He asked, "How did you get in here without wedding clothes, friend?" The man was speechless.' (Mat 22:12)

Jesus told a parable about a wedding banquet (Mat 22:1–14). It tells us what the kingdom of God is like (v2), and teaches us about salvation and what qualifies us for salvation.

Scripture likens heaven to a meal (Luk 22:29–30), to a feast (Mat 8:11) and, in this case, to a wedding banquet. They symbolize fellowship—the fellowship we'll enjoy when God gathers us together at the end of the age. Wedding banquets, in particular, are occasions of great joy and celebration.

Jesus said that a king prepared a banquet for his son. When all the guests were assembled he came in and noticed someone who wasn't wearing wedding clothes. He asked him why he wasn't wearing wedding clothes and the man was speechless. The king told his attendants to throw him outside into the darkness where there will be weeping and gnashing of teeth.

God's kingdom is a kingdom of light (Col 1:12) and the man was cast into darkness. He couldn't enter heaven because he wasn't wearing the right clothes: he hadn't satisfied the entry requirements. Jesus summed up the qualities required for salvation in one word: 'righteousness' (Mat 25:46) which, we have seen, is symbolized in Scripture by clothing.

So, do the wedding garments the man was lacking represent Christ's righteousness or our own righteousness? They represent both, because the Bible says that a person is considered righteous by what they do and not by faith alone (Jam 2:20–24).

To enter heaven we must be clothed correctly, with Christ's righteousness and our own righteousness.

The need for Christ's righteousness

This is the account of Noah and his family.

Noah was a righteous man, blameless among the people of his time, and he walked faithfully with God. (Gen 6:9)

Gen 6:5 describes how great people's wickedness on earth had become and that every inclination of the thoughts of their hearts was only evil all the time. The human race had become so depraved that God was about to destroy it, and yet there was one man who was living a righteous life. That man was Noah.

How was Noah able to do that in a world that had become totally evil? He could't do it by living according to his sinful nature, as everyone else was doing. Noah was able to live righteously because he was born again: he was an Old Testament believer who was indwelt by the Spirit of God, and was living according to the Spirit (Rom 8:5).

But if Noah was a righteous man, who escaped God's wrath by his own righteousness (produced, as it was, by God's indwelling Spirit), then why do we need Christ's righteousness for salvation? The answer is because Christ's righteousness is perfect, whereas our own righteousness is imperfect.

The Bible says that there is no one on earth who does what is right and never sins (Ecc 7:20). Noah found favour with God through his righteousness, and yet in Gen 9 we read that he made some wine, drank it and became drunk. Drunkenness is sin (Gal 5:19–21).

Every righteous person in the Bible had flaws, except for one. Jesus didn't sin from the moment he was conceived until the moment he died. He was sinless perfection in a human body. That is the God we worship (Joh 20:28), and that is the God through whom we are saved (Act 4:11–12).

Just one sin drove mankind from God's presence in the garden. We cannot re-enter his presence unless we are perfect. That is why we need to claim Christ's righteousness, as our own, by faith.

The need for our own righteousness

He leads me in paths of righteousness for his name's sake. (Psa 23:3, ESV)

If Christ's righteousness is perfect and available to us by faith, then why do we need to live righteous lives in order to be saved (Mat 5:20)? The answer is because faith without action is dead (Jam 2:17). Faith by itself cannot save us (Jam 2:20): we make our faith complete by what we do (Jam 2:22).

In the 16th Century, Martin Luther, an unsaved Catholic monk, received the revelation that justification—the act of God declaring a sinner righteous—could not be achieved by his own attempts to live a righteous life.

On the contrary, it could only be achieved through faith in the righteous life that Jesus had lived on his behalf (Rom 3:21–22). As Paul declares, it's a righteousness that is by faith from first to last (Rom 1:17).

Luther, rejoicing in the truth God had shown him, then taught that a person is justified by faith alone, and not by what they do. That is not true, in fact the opposite is true. The Bible says that we are justified by what we do and not by faith alone (Jam 2:24).

How did Luther deal with the truth he read in the letter of James? He believed it wasn't divinely inspired and tried to have it removed from the Bible. Should we do the same? God forbid!

Paul uses Abraham to teach the righteousness that comes from faith (Rom 4:1–5), and James uses Abraham to teach the righteousness that comes from what we do (Jam 2:20–21). Both are true and both are required for salvation.

Get yourself ready

My dear brothers and sisters, take note of this: everyone should be quick to listen, slow to speak and slow to become angry, because human anger does not produce the righteousness that God desires. (Jam 1:19–20)

Since the time of Luther, the Church has preached the righteousness that comes from faith, often neglecting to preach the righteous life that God desires us to live as a result of our faith (Rom 6:13).

As our Lord's return draws ever nearer, we need to put our wedding clothes on (our righteous acts), and keep them on, so that when he appears we will not be shamefully exposed (Rev 16:15).

Wealth is worthless in the day of wrath, but righteousness delivers from death. (Pro 11:4)

Michael Graham
November 2009
Revised June 2013

Scripture quotations taken from The Holy Bible, New International Version (Anglicised edition). Copyright © 1979, 1984, 2011 by Biblica (formerly International Bible Society). Used by permission of Hodder & Stoughton Publishers, an Hachette UK company. All rights reserved.

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